HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus that is endemic in certain parts of the world, including the northern and southern islands of Japan, the Caribbean, parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, parts of South America, and the Middle East. The most common routes of transmission are mother to child through breast feeding, blood transfusions, or sexual transmission. Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 2 HTLV-2 was thought to carry an increased risk; however currently this paradigm is now questioned as to whether it causes any known human disease. There are several distinct clinical presentations termed: While definitions are now published, the subtypes exist in a spectrum, and at times there is overlap between presentations. The most conclusive diagnostic technique is demonstration of clonal integration of the HTLV-1 virus into tumor tissue; however this test is not widely available, and positive serology with appropriate evidence of T-cell lymphoma consistent with ATL is sufficient in most cases. The smoldering and chronic subtypes are generally indolent and can be treated with biologic therapies or even observed, while the aggressive forms, acute and lymphoma, can be rapidly progressive and become life threatening in a short period of time.
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy of mature activated T cells caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. ATL carries a . Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL or ATLL) is a rare cancer of the immune system's own T-cells. Human T cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is.
Our overview page explains what T-cell lymphoma is. However, most people infected with HTLV-1 do not go on to develop lymphoma. It is more common in other parts of the world like southern Japan, the Caribbean basin, Central and South America, parts of central Africa, Iran and Romania. The main way the virus is transmitted spread from person-to-person is thought to be through breast milk.
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